OIL SHALE’S ENERGY RETURN ON ENERGY INVESTMENT
WHAT ARE TAR SANDS?
Tar sands (also known as oil sands) are a mixture of mostly sand, clay, water, and a thick, molasses-like substance called bitumen. Bitumen is made of hydrocarbons—the same molecules in liquid oil—and is used to produce gasoline and other petroleum products.
Extracting bitumen from tar sands—and refining it into products like gasoline—is significantly costlier and more difficult than extracting and refining liquid oil…>>
Environmental Impacts Of Tar Sands
…Tar sands also impact water supplies. For every gallon of gasoline produced by tar sands, about 5.9 gallons of freshwater are consumed during the extraction, upgrading, and refining process. That’s roughly three times as much as used for conventional oil.…>>
WHAT IS OIL SHALE
Oil shale is a mixture of sand, silt, salt, and an insoluble organic substance called kerogen. Rock-like at room temperature, oil shale produces vapors and gases when heated, which in turn are condensed and turned into oil.
Oil shale shouldn’t be confused with “shale oil,” also called “tight oil,” a more commonly produced…>>
Environmental impacts of oil shale
The solution: half the oil