COAL FOSSIL FUEL
Coal is defined as having more than 50 percent by weight (or 70 percent by volume) carbonaceous matter produced by the compaction and hardening of altered plant remains—namely, peatdeposits. Different varieties of coal arise because…>>
Coal is a fossil fuel created from the remains of plants that lived and died about 100 to 400 million years ago when parts of the earth were covered with huge swampy forests. Coal is classified as a nonrenewable energy source because it takes millions of years to form.
How is Coal Formed
Most coal formed approximately 300 million years ago, from the remains of trees and other vegetation. These remains were trapped on the bottom of swamps, accumulating layer after layer and creating a dense material called peat. As this peat was buried under more and more ground, the high temperatures and pressure transformed it into coal…>> zmescience.com
ENERGY DENSITY OF COAL
TYPES OF COAL
What is Coal “Rank”?- geology.com/rocks/coal
SUB-BITUMINOUS AND BITUMINOUS-
CLASSIFICATION OF COAL
After a considerable amount of time, heat, and burial pressure, it is metamorphosed from peat to lignite. Lignite is considered to be “immature” coal at this stage of development because it is still somewhat light in color and it remains soft.
Charts for: engineeringtoolbox.com
Typical Sulfur Content in Coal
Typical Moisture Content in Coal
Typical Fixed Carbon Content in Coal
Typical Bulk Density of Coal
Typical Ash Content in Coal
COAL THROUGH A MICROSCOPE
It’s Far More Than A Black Rock! If you think that coal is a boring black rock then you have never seen it through a transmitted light microscope. The microscope reveals coal’s hidden beauty as well as its organic composition… For more pictures and story>> geology.com
WHERE IS COAL FOUND
Which States Produce The Most Coal?
In 2017, about 757 million short tons of coal were produced in 24 states. Five states produced a total of about 538 million short tons, or about 71% of total U.S. coal production. The five largest coal producing states with production in million short tons and the share of total U.S. coal production in 2017:
– Wyoming: 316.5 (41%)
– West Virginia: 92.8 (12%)
– Pennsylvania: 41.9 (6%)
– Illinois: 48.2 (6%)
– Kentucky: 41.8 (5%)
For the complete list: Latest Coal production by state (preliminary 2015)
Global proved coal reserves from 2010 to 2017, by type (in million metric tons)
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Mining Methods- Coal is mined by two methods: SURFACE MINING and UNDERGROUND MINING
Surface mining – also known as opencast or opencut mining – is only economic when the coal seam is near the surface.
Large opencast mines can cover an area of many square kilometres and use very large pieces of equipment can cover an area of many square kilometres and use very large pieces of equipment, such as draglines, power shovels, large trucks, bucket wheel excavators and conveyors.
Underground mining- worldcoal.org
Room & Pillar Mining-
In room-and-pillar mining, coal deposits are mined by cutting a network of ‘rooms’ into the coal seam and leaving behind ‘pillars’ of coal to support the roof of the mine.
Longwall mining involves the full extraction of coal from a section of the seam, or ‘face’ using mechanical shearers.
GASES FROM COAL
Types Of Coal Gas? Gases derived from coal come in four key forms>> clarke-energy.com
Coal Seam Methane (CSM), or Coal Bed Methane (CBM)
Coal Mine Methane (CMM), or Working Mine Methane (WMM)
Abandoned Mine Methane (AMM)
Syngas from Underground Coal Gasification (UCG)
For more information on these gases click below:
Coal Bed Methane (CBM)
Coal Mine Methane (CMM)
Abandoned Mine Methane (AMM)
Underground Coal Gasification (UCG)
Gas Engines and Coal Gas
Benefits of Coal Seam Methane for Captive Power
Coal Seam Gas Competence