Units of Measurement

THIS IS THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS.
Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, it can only be converted from one form to another.

KINETIC ENERGY is motion energy.
POTENTIAL ENERGY is energy stored in matter

ENERGY IS MEASURED IN JOULES(J)
– BTU= 1,055 Joules
– Calorie = 4.187 Joules

POWER IS MEASURED IN WATTS (W)
–
Watt= 1 Joule/second
– 746 Watts= 1 Horsepower
– 1000 Watts= 1 Kiowatt

JOHN STIVERS – WORK ENERGY POWER
This video breaks down WORK, ENERGY and POWER into an easily understood explanation.

Well let’s start with work. Physicists define work as a force applied over a distance. If you take an object, say a toolbox and apply a force, 22 pounds of force and you move it two feet, you’ve done 44 foot pounds of work. In metric those units convert to 100 newtons of force, and let’s say we moved it 0.60 of a meter. So we’ve done 60 newton-meters of work. In the metric system that’s referred to as a joule, 1 newton-meter is 1 joule.  Continue reading the transcript.  energy-101.org

HOW TO CONVERT DATA IN ONE UNIT OF MEASURE TO A DIFFERENT UNIT OF MEASURE?
www.eia.gov
Unit of measure equivalents (for electricity)

ENERGY UNITS AND CONVERSIONS
by Dennis Silverman

1 Joule (J) is the MKS unit of energy, equal to the force of one Newton acting through one meter.
1 Watt is the power of a Joule of energy per second

Power = Current x Voltage (P = I V)
1 Watt is the power from a current of 1 Ampere flowing through 1 Volt.
1 kilowatt is a thousand Watts.
1 kilowatt-hour is the energy of one kilowatt power flowing for one hour. (E = P t).
1 kilowatt-hour (kWh) = 3.6 x 106  J = 3.6 million Joules

1 calorie of heat is the amount needed to raise 1 gram of water 1 degree Centigrade.
1 calorie (cal) = 4.184 J
(The Calories in food ratings are actually kilocalories.)

A BTU (British Thermal Unit) is the amount of heat necessary to raise one pound of water by 1 degree Farenheit (F).
1 British Thermal Unit (BTU) = 1055 J (The Mechanical Equivalent of Heat Relation)
1 BTU = 252 cal  = 1.055 kJ
1 Quad = 1015 BTU  (World energy usage is about 300 Quads/year, US is about 100 Quads/year in 1996.)
1 therm = 100,000 BTU
1,000 kWh = 3.41 million BTU  www.physics.uci.edu/~silverma/units.html

GAS VOLUME TO ENERGY CONVERSION
One thousand cubic feet of gas (Mcf) -> 1.027 million BTU = 1.083 billion J = 301 kWh
One therm = 100,000 BTU = 105.5 MJ = 29.3 kWh
1 Mcf -> 10.27 therms

Btu Content of Common Energy Units
1 barrel (42 gallons) of crude oil = 5,800,000 Btu
1 gallon of gasoline = 124,238 Btu (based on U.S. consumption, 2008)
1 gallon of diesel fuel = 138,690 Btu
1 gallon of heating oil = 138,690 Btu
1 barrel of residual fuel oil = 6,287,000 Btu
1 cubic foot of natural gas = 1,027 Btu (based on U.S. consumption, 2008)
1 gallon of propane = 91,033 Btu
1 short ton of coal = 19,977,000 Btu (based on U.S. consumption, 2008)
1 kilowatthour of electricity = 3,412 Btu
Source: US Energy Information Administration

CO2 POLLUTION OF FOSSIL FUELS
Pounds of CO2 per billion BTU of energy::
Coal            208,000 pounds
Oil               164,000 pounds
Natural Gas 117,000 pounds

Ratios of CO2 pollution:
Oil / Natural Gas = 1.40
Coal / Natural Gas = 1.78

Pounds of CO2 per 1,000 kWh, at 100% efficiency:
Coal             709 pounds
Oil                559 pounds
Natural Gas  399 pounds
physics.uci.edu/~silverma/units.html

BIO FUELS – ENERGY CONTENT
COMMON BIO FUELS AND THEIR ENERGY CONTENT- See chart…engineeringtoolbox.com/

8 OF 53 INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT . . .
Energy www.factretriever.com/energy-facts

According to Google, the energy it takes to conduct 100 searches on its site is equivalent to a 60-watt light bulb burning for 28 minutes. Google uses about 0.0003 kWh of energy to answer the avenge search query, which translates into about 0.2 g of carbon dioxide released.

In the average home, 75% of the electricity used to power home electronics is consumed while the products are turned off. The average desktop computer idles at 80 watts, while the average laptop idles at 20 watts. A Sony PlayStation 3 uses about 200 watts and nearly as much when idle. Idle power consumes more electricity than all the solar panels in America combined.

Only 10% of energy in a light bulb is used to create light. Ninety percent of a light bulb’s energy creates heat. Compact fluorescent light bulbs (CFLs), on the other hand, use about 80% less electricity than conventional bulbs and last up to 12 times as long.

The amount of energy Americans use doubles every 20 years.

The United States produces more nuclear-generated electricity than any other country, nearly 1/3 of the world’s total. The second largest producer is France, which generates more than 3/4 of its electricity in nuclear reactors.

The top seven oil consumers combined use more than half of the world’s total. The United States alone uses more than a quarter.

More than 1/5 of the world’s primary energy is used for transport, followed by industry, construction, and agricultures. Much is in the form of gasoline, of which nearly 792.5 million gallons is burned every day.

A hurricane releases 50 trillion to 200 trillion watts of heat energy. This is as much energy as a 10-megaton nuclear bomb exploding every 20 minutes.

10 OF 47 CRITICAL FACTS ABOUT . . .
Global Warming    https://www.factretriever.com/global-warming-facts

The United States represents less than 5% of the world’s population, yet Americans account for 25% of the world’s commercial energy consumption and 22% of the world’s industrial emissions of CO2.

Swedish scientist Svante Arrhenius was the first to note in 1896 that fossil fuel combustion could result in global warming.

Approximately 31% of white Americans don’t believe in global warming. By contrast, just 11% of Hispanics and 17% of blacks claim there is no solid evidence that the Earth is warming

There is more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere now that there has been in the last 800,000 years.

Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, the ocean’s acidity has increased by approximately 30%.

Natural levels of CO2in the atmosphere have varied throughout history between 180 and 300 parts per million (ppm). Today’s CO2levels hover around 380 ppm, representing a 25% increase over the highest recorded natural levels.

Global warming is turning jungle leaves into “junk food.” Specifically, jungle leaves are accumulating more fiber and less protein, making them less nutritious for the animals that feed on them.

Cows burping, pooping, and emitting gas release over 13 million tons of methane each year, which is 70% more emissions than the oil and gas industry. After carbon dioxide, methane is the most widespread greenhouse gas.

In 1910, Glacier National Park in Montana boasted 150 glaciers—today there are just 27.

Fossil fuel burning currently adds nearly six billion tons of CO2 to the atmosphere every year. Only half of this CO2 is removed by forests and oceans.

As Arctic ice rapidly disappears, scientists believe the Arctic will experience its first ice-free summer as early as the year 2040.

Deserts worldwide are increasing as a result of warmer temperatures. At the end of the year 2007, Australia lost 25% of crop production due to desertification. https://www.factretriever.com/global-warming-facts